Barker will take up her role as a non-executive director in April.
She led influential reviews for the previous Government on UK Housing Supply and on Land Use Planning and was a member of the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of England, which sets interest rates, from 2001 until 2010.
Barker is a Board Member of the Homes and Communities Agency and was also a member of its predecessor body, the Housing Corporation.
She will stand down from this position prior to joining the Board of Taylor Wimpey.
Chairman Kevin Beeston said: “I am delighted that Kate Barker has agreed to join the Board as an independent Non Executive Director. She will bring to the company a wealth of economic and political experience as well as a detailed knowledge of the housing industry.”