The UK Border Agency enforcement operation was part of a nationwide campaign to tackle illegal working, sham marriages, bogus colleges and organised immigration crime.
Acting on intelligence, officers visited the building site on Smith Street, Rochdale and questioned staff to ensure they had the right to work in the UK.
The Indian men aged between 29 and 42 were arrested for immigration offences including illegal working and breach of visa conditions. Steps are now being taken to remove all four men from the UK.
The agency employing the construction workers will be issued with a civil penalty notice for employing illegal workers.
If they are unable to prove they conducted the correct pre-employment checks on staff they may be liable for a fine of up to £10,000 per worker – a total of £40,000.
Eddy Montgomery, operations director, North West, UK Border Agency said: “We are absolutely determined to stamp down on those businesses that ignore our immigration laws.
“Any employer who takes on foreign nationals without permission to work in the UK is breaking the law, undermining law-abiding businesses and faces fines of up to £10,000 per illegal employee.
“If people ignore our immigration laws, we will find them and remove them from the country.”