The route was given an immediate £20m boost in last month’s Autumn Statement with a package of planned congestion-busting measures.
But longer term plans could include tolling improved stretches of the route as the Government looks to attract private funds into infrastructure schemes.
Roads minister Mike Penning launched a “fast-paced” study which will feed ideas into the Department for Transport plans for the A14 due to be revealed next summer.
Penning said: “I urge anyone with an interest in tackling the congestion problems currently experienced on the A14 to submit their ideas for improvements to the A14 Challenge.
“We do not believe that, on its own, a simple road building solution is likely to be the best option. That’s why local knowledge and understanding in areas such as public transport, local roads, freight facilities and land use development is vital to enrich the final package.”
The DfT added: “One area where innovative ideas will be welcome is in financing major improvements.
“The Government has no intention of charging road users for an unimproved facility but would expect to consider tolling for enhanced capacity.”