He will succeed Paul Morrell who stepped down from the role at the end of November.
Hansford is a former President of the Institution of Civil Engineers and is currently acting as Chairman of the industry-wide Infrastructure Steering Committee.
His CV includes stints as Project Manager for the Docklands Light Railway (1989-1992) and Executive Director of the Strategic Rail Authority (2000-2002).
Business Minister Mark Prisk said: “I welcome Peter to the role of Chief Construction Adviser. He is well-known and respected in the construction sector, and his wealth of experience will prove an invaluable asset as we move forward with our construction agenda.
“I’d like to thank Paul Morrell for his dedicated service to the role over the last three years. He has been instrumental in leading the implementation of the Government’s five year construction strategy.
“He also oversaw many notable milestones including the publication of the Low Carbon Construction Innovation and Growth Team Report, the introduction of cost benchmarking and the establishment of procurement models for industry. I wish him the best in his future endeavours.”
Minister for the Cabinet Office Francis Maude said: “This is an incredibly important role; over the next four years there are over 600 Government funded construction projects and programmes which will see around £40 billion of investment.
“I’m pleased to welcome Peter to the post. His experience makes him an ideal candidate to lead on this agenda.
“I’m proud of the progress that we have made to date, and I’d like to thank Paul Morrell for his leadership and achievements throughout his successful time in this post.”
Hansford said: “I am delighted to have been selected as the Government’s new Chief Construction Adviser, building on the excellent foundation created by Paul Morrell.
“I am excited by the challenge of working with industry to deliver the construction agenda, and to progress the transition to a low carbon economy. I look forward to taking up the role in December.”