The structure fell from a row of shops in Church Street trapping one of the victims – believed to be a woman in her 60s – underneath.
A van was also trapped beneath the fallen scaffold and a passing bus was hit.
Eye-witness Dan Brown told the Leicester Mercury: “I was in the office and heard a massive gust of wind. I stood up, looked out of the window and the scaffolding was coming down.
“I ran across the road and a lady was underneath. She was on the floor on her knees.
“We pulled seven planks of wood out, enabling someone to get in to make sure she was okay.”
An East Midlands Ambulance Service spokeswoman said: “We received a call reporting that scaffolding had fallen on a lady.
“First on the scene was a fast response vehicle which arrived four minutes after the call.
“Back up from a double crewed ambulance was requested and two patients were taken to Leicester Royal Infirmary.”
The scaffolding was erected by local firm Emperor Scaffolding who helped the emergency services with the clear-up operation.