Anderson will assume overall operational responsibility for all group companies, including Byrne Bros concrete formwork, Chorus fit-out and Ellmer general building.
He will report directly to chief executive Michael Byrne.
His appointment will allow Tony Dowle to concentrate exclusively on his role as group commercial director.
Anderson brings vast experience from both the contractor and client side of construction.
Until 2000 he was managing director of Bovis Lend Lease Europe, leaving at the age of 55 to join property developer Land Securities. Three years later he was poached to join rival developer Chelsfield and more recently has worked as a consultant.
Michael Byrne, chief executive, said: “John brings a wealth of experience in managing major construction businesses.
“His strategic and operational insight, drive and determination will further enhance the company’s management team and support the group’s development.”
Anderson’s appoint follows the recruitment of a new finance director Daren Harris from N G Bailey at the end of last year.
Byrne Group has a forward order book of more than £300m and is involved in the construction of many high profile central London contracts including the Bloomberg HQ in the City of London, the redevelopment of the BBC White City and the new Christian Dior flagship store on New Bond Street.