The review follows a spate of fatal accidents where cyclists have been killed by skip lorries, tipper trucks and cement mixers.
It will look at the design, operation and driving of construction vehicles after they were involved in seven of the eight recent cycling deaths in London.
The move follows a meeting between the Mayor and the family of Brian Dorling who was killed in east London last month.
Johnson said: “I am determined to do everything possible to make our roads safer for cyclists and I have asked TfL to embark on a great deal of work to do so.
“I do want to reassure Londoners that at a time when record numbers are cycling the statistics show that our streets are getting safer; however we will do our utmost to minimise any future casualties and are focusing on several key areas where we believe improvements might be made.”